The Graduate School was established as a unit of Texas Southern University when the institution was created by the Texas State Legislature in 1947. Since its establishment, the Graduate School has grown steadily and currently offers degree programs in thirty-six different academic fields.

Graduate courses are taught by faculty members who have been selected for graduate faculty status by the Graduate Council. Regular graduate faculty members have the doctorate degree and hold research and publication credits. Research and training are also supported by several centers of research and outreach including: Economic Development Center (EDC), Center for Excellence in Urban Education, Center for Transportation Training and Research (CTTR), Mickey Leland Center on World Hunger and Peace, Center on the Family, Research Centers in Minority Institutions, Cardiovascular Center, and the NASA Research Center in Biotechnology and Environmental Health

The Graduate School curriculum includes programs in humanities, communications, science, technology, education, behavioral science, management, and pharmacy. Many of the graduate courses are taught in the evenings and on weekends.

The accreditation of graduate programs at the University has been affirmed by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

The Graduate School holds membership in the Council of Graduate Schools of the United States, the Association of Texas Graduate Schools, the Conference of Southern Graduate Schools and the Council of Historically Black Graduate Schools.